Note 1 Organisation and summary of significant accounting policies

Nature of operations

The Swiss Re Group, which is headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, comprises Swiss Re Ltd (the parent company) and its subsidiaries (collectively, the “Swiss Re Group” or the “Group”). The Swiss Re Group is a wholesale provider of reinsurance, insurance and other insurance-based forms of risk transfer. Working through brokers and a network of more than 60 offices around the globe, the Group serves a client base made up of insurance companies, mid- to large-sized corporations and public sector clients.

Basis of presentation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (US GAAP) and comply with Swiss law. All significant intra-group transactions and balances have been eliminated on consolidation.

These financial statements reflect the structure announced by the Group on 17 February 2011 and which was fully implemented with effect from 1 January 2012. The segmental disclosures have been revised to reflect the way the Group now manages its business activities. The Group reporting structure consists of the Reinsurance unit, with separate disclosure of the Property & Casualty Reinsurance and Life & Health Reinsurance reporting segments, the Corporate Solutions reporting segment and the Admin Re® reporting segment. The Group items reporting segment includes the Group’s holding company (Swiss Re Ltd), and certain treasury activities as well as the remaining non-core activities that have been in run-off since November 2007. The segmental disclosures for the comparative period have been restated to reflect the current structure. Please refer to Note 17 for further information. Additional details on segment results are included in Notes 5, 9 and 10.

As of 1 January 2012, the Group changed the presentation of its investments related to unit-linked and with-profit business in Life & Health Reinsurance and Admin Re®. These assets are presented in separate line items on the face of the income statement and balance sheet. The comparative period has been revised and presented accordingly.

On 4 September 2012, the Group completed the sale of Admin Re® US to Jackson National Life Insurance Company (Jackson National). Subsequently, the subject business was deconsolidated as of that date. For more details on the transaction and its impact on the Swiss Re Group financial statements, please refer to Note 6.

On 4 September 2012, the Group completed the sale of Swiss Re Private Equity Partners AG to BlackRock, Inc. The sale resulted in a reduction in non-controlling interests of USD 1 400 million related to private equity funds. The Group continues to be invested as a limited partner in the funds. Please refer to Note 6 for further information.

Principles of consolidation

The Group’s financial statements include the consolidated financial statements of Swiss Re Ltd and its subsidiaries. Voting entities which Swiss Re Ltd directly or indirectly controls through holding a majority of the voting rights are consolidated in the Group’s accounts. Variable interest entities (VIEs) are consolidated when the Swiss Re Group is the primary beneficiary. The Group is the primary beneficiary when it has power over the activities that impact the VIE’s economic performance and at the same time has the obligation to absorb losses or the right to receive benefits that could potentially be significant to the VIE. Companies which the Group does not control, but over which it directly or indirectly exercises significant influence, are accounted for using the equity method and are included in other invested assets. The Swiss Re Group’s share of net profit or loss in investments accounted for under the equity method is included in net investment income. Equity and net income of these companies are adjusted as necessary to be in line with the Group’s accounting policies. The results of consolidated subsidiaries and investments accounted for using the equity method are included in the financial statements for the period commencing from the date of acquisition.

Use of estimates in the preparation of financial statements

The preparation of financial statements requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses as well as the related disclosure, including contingent assets and liabilities. The Swiss Re Group’s liabilities for unpaid claims and claim adjustment expenses and policy benefits for life and health include estimates for premium, claim and benefit data not received from ceding companies at the date of the financial statements. In addition, the Group uses certain financial instruments and invests in securities of certain entities for which exchange trading does not exist. The Group determines these estimates based on historical information, actuarial analyses, financial modelling and other analytical techniques. Actual results could differ significantly from the estimates described above.

Foreign currency remeasurements and translation

Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are remeasured to the respective subsidiary’s functional currency at average quarterly exchange rates. Monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured to the functional currency at closing exchange rates, whereas non-monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured to the functional currency at historical rates. Remeasurement gains and losses on monetary assets and liabilities and trading securities are reported in earnings. Remeasurement gains and losses on available-for-sale securities, investments in consolidated subsidiaries and investments accounted for using the equity method are reported in shareholders’ equity.

For consolidation purposes, assets and liabilities of subsidiaries with functional currencies other than US dollars are translated from the functional currency to US dollars at closing rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at average exchange rates. Translation adjustments are reported in shareholders’ equity.

Valuation of financial assets

The fair value of the majority of the Group’s financial instruments is based on quoted prices in active markets or observable inputs. These instruments include government and agency securities, commercial paper, most investment-grade corporate debt, most high-yield debt securities, exchange-traded derivative instruments, most mortgage- and asset-backed securities and listed equity securities. In markets with reduced or no liquidity, spreads between bid and offer prices are normally wider compared to spreads in highly liquid markets. Such market conditions affect the valuation of certain asset classes of the Group, such as some asset-backed securities as well as certain derivative structures referencing such asset classes.

The Group considers both the credit risk of its counterparties and own risk of non-performance in the valuation of derivative instruments and other over-the-counter financial assets. In determining the fair value of these financial instruments, the assessment of the Group’s exposure to the credit risk of its counterparties incorporates consideration of existing collateral and netting arrangements entered into with each counterparty. The measure of the counterparty credit risk is estimated with incorporation of the observable credit spreads, where available, or credit spread estimates derived based on the benchmarking techniques where market data is not available. The impact of the Group’s own risk of non-performance is analysed in the manner consistent with the aforementioned approach, with consideration of the Group’s observable credit spreads. The value representing such risk is incorporated into the fair value of the financial instruments (primarily derivatives), in a liability position as of the measurement date. The change in this adjustment from period to period is reflected in realised gains and losses in the income statement.

For assets or derivative structures at fair value, the Group uses market prices or inputs derived from market prices. A separate internal price verification process, independent of the trading function, provides an additional control over the market prices or market input used to determine the fair values of such assets. Although management considers that appropriate values have been ascribed to such assets, there is always a level of uncertainty and judgment over these valuations. Subsequent valuations could differ significantly from the results of the process described above. The Group may become aware of counterparty valuations, either directly through the exchange of information or indirectly, for example, through collateral demands. Any implied differences are considered in the independent price verification process and may result in adjustments to initially indicated valuations. As of 31 December 2012, the Group had not provided any collateral on financial instruments in excess of its own market value estimates.


The Group’s investments in fixed income and equity securities are classified as available-for-sale (AFS) or trading. Fixed income securities AFS and equity securities AFS are carried at fair value, based on quoted market prices, with the difference between original cost and fair value being recognised in shareholders’ equity. Trading fixed income and equity securities are carried at fair value with unrealised gains and losses being recognised in earnings.

The cost of equity securities AFS is reduced to fair value, with a corresponding charge to realised investment losses if the decline in value, expressed in functional currency terms, is other-than-temporary. Subsequent recoveries of previously recognised impairments are not recognised in earnings.

For debt securities AFS which are other-than-temporary impaired and there is not an intention to sell, the impairment is separated into (i) the estimated amount relating to credit loss, and (ii) the amount relating to all other factors. The estimated credit loss amount is recognised in earnings, with the remainder of the loss amount recognised in other comprehensive income. In cases where there is an intention or requirement to sell, the accounting of the other-than-temporary impairment is the same as for equity securities AFS described above.

Interest on fixed income securities is recorded in net investment income when earned and is adjusted for the amortisation of any purchase premium or discount. Dividends on equity securities are recorded on the basis of the ex-dividend date. Realised gains and losses on sales are included in earnings and are calculated using the specific identification method.

Policy loans, mortgages and other loans are carried at amortised cost. Interest income is recognised in accordance with the effective yield method.

Investment in real estate that the Group intends to hold for the production of income is carried at depreciated cost, net of any write-downs for impairment in value. Impairment in value is recognised if the sum of the estimated future undiscounted cash flows from the use of the real estate is lower than its carrying value. Impairment in value, depreciation and other related charges or credits are included in net investment income. Investment in real estate held for sale is carried at the lower of cost or fair value, less estimated selling costs, and is not depreciated. Reductions in the carrying value of real estate held for sale are included in realised investment losses.

Short-term investments are carried at amortised cost, which approximates fair value. The Group considers highly liquid investments with a remaining maturity at the date of acquisition of one year or less, but greater than three months, to be short-term investments.

Other invested assets include affiliated companies, equity accounted companies, derivative financial instruments, collateral receivables, securities purchased under agreement to resell, and investments without readily determinable fair value (including limited partnership investments). Investments in limited partnerships where the Group’s interest equals or exceeds 3% are accounted for using the equity method. Investments in limited partnerships where the Group’s interest is below 3% and equity investments in corporate entities which are not publicly traded are accounted for at estimated fair value with changes in fair value recognised as unrealised gains/losses in shareholders’ equity.

The Group enters into security lending arrangements under which it loans certain securities in exchange for collateral and receives securities lending fees. The Group’s policy is to require collateral, consisting of cash or securities, equal to at least 102% of the carrying value of the securities loaned. In certain arrangements, the Group may accept collateral of less than 102% if the structure of the overall transaction offers an equivalent level of security. Cash received as collateral is recognised along with an obligation to return the cash. Securities received as collateral that can be sold or repledged are also recognised along with an obligation to return those securities. Security lending fees are recognised over the term of the related loans.

Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting

The Group uses a variety of derivative financial instruments including swaps, options, forwards and exchange-traded financial futures for the Group’s trading and hedging strategy in line with the overall risk management strategy. Derivative financial instruments are primarily used as a means of managing exposure to price, foreign currency and/or interest rate risk on planned or anticipated investment purchases, existing assets or existing liabilities and also to lock in attractive investment conditions for funds which become available in the future. The Group recognises all of its derivative instruments on the balance sheet at fair value. Derivatives that are not designated as hedging instruments are adjusted to fair value through earnings.

If the derivative is designated as a hedge of the fair value of assets or liabilities, changes in the fair value of the derivative are recognised in earnings, together with changes in the fair value of the related hedged item. If the derivative is designated as a hedge of the variability in expected future cash flows related to a particular risk, changes in the fair value of the derivative are reported in other comprehensive income until the hedged item is recognised in earnings. The ineffective portion of the hedge is recognised in earnings. When hedge accounting is discontinued on a cash flow hedge, the net gain or loss remains in accumulated other comprehensive income and is reclassified to earnings in the period in which the formerly hedged transaction is reported in earnings. When the Group discontinues hedge accounting because it is no longer probable that a forecasted transaction will occur within the required time period, the derivative continues to be carried on the balance sheet at fair value, and gains and losses that were previously recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income are recognised in earnings.

The Group recognises separately derivatives that are embedded within other host instruments if the economic characteristics and risks are not clearly and closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract and if it meets the definition of a derivative if it were stand-alone.

Derivative financial instrument assets are generally included in other invested assets and derivative financial instrument liabilities are generally included in accrued expenses and other liabilities.

The Group also designates non-derivative monetary financial instruments as a hedge of the foreign currency exposure of its net investment in certain foreign operations. From the inception of the hedging relationship, remeasurement gains and losses on the designated non-derivative monetary financial instruments and translation gains and losses on the hedged net investment are reported as translation gains and losses in shareholders’ equity.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, short-term deposits, certain short-term investments in money market funds, and highly liquid debt instruments with a remaining maturity at the date of acquisition of three months or less.

Deferred acquisition costs

Acquisition costs, which vary with, and are primarily related to, the production of new insurance and reinsurance business, are deferred to the extent they are deemed recoverable from future gross profits. Deferred acquisition costs consist principally of commissions. Deferred acquisition costs for short-duration contracts are amortised in proportion to premiums earned. Future investment income is considered in determining the recoverability of deferred acquisition costs for short-duration contracts. Deferred acquisition costs for long-duration contracts are amortised over the life of underlying contracts. Deferred acquisition costs for universal-life and similar products are amortised based on the present value of estimated gross profits. Estimated gross profits are updated quarterly.

Business combinations

The Group applies the purchase method of accounting for business combinations. This method allocates the cost of the acquired entity to the assets and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values at the date of acquisition.

Admin Re® blocks of business can be acquired in different legal forms, either through an acquisition of an entity’s share capital or through a reinsurance transaction. The Group’s policy is to treat these transactions consistently regardless of the form of acquisition. Accordingly, the Group records the acquired assets and liabilities directly to the balance sheet. Premiums, life and health benefits and other income statement items are not recorded in the income statement on the date of the acquisition.

The underlying liabilities and assets acquired are subsequently accounted for according to the relevant GAAP guidance, including specific guidance applicable to subsequent accounting for assets and liabilities recognised as part of the purchase method of accounting, including present value of future profit, goodwill and other intangible assets.

Acquired present value of future profits

The acquired present value of future profits (PVFP) of business in force is recorded in connection with the acquisition of life and/or health business. The initial value is determined actuarially by discounting estimated future gross profits as a measure of the value of business acquired. The resulting asset is amortised on a constant yield basis over the expected revenue recognition period of the business acquired, generally over periods ranging up to 30 years, with the accrual of interest added to the unamortised balance at the earned rate. For universal-life and similar products, PVFP is amortised in line with estimated gross profits, and estimated gross profits are updated quarterly. The carrying value of PVFP is reviewed periodically for indicators of impairment in value. Adjustments to reflect impairment in value are recognised in earnings during the period in which the determination of impairment is made or to other comprehensive income for shadow loss recognition.


The excess of the purchase price of acquired businesses over the estimated fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill, which is reviewed periodically for indicators of impairment in value. Adjustments to reflect impairment in value are recognised in earnings in the period in which the determination of impairment is made.

Other assets

Other assets include deferred expenses on retroactive reinsurance, prepaid reinsurance premiums, receivables related to investing activities, real estate for own use, property, plant and equipment, accrued income, certain intangible assets and prepaid assets.

The excess of estimated liabilities for claims and claim adjustment expenses payable over consideration received in respect of retroactive property and casualty reinsurance contracts is recorded as a deferred expense. The deferred expense on retroactive reinsurance contracts is amortised through earnings over the expected claims-paying period.

Real estate for own use, property, plant and equipment are carried at depreciated cost.

Capitalised software costs

External direct costs of materials and services incurred to develop or obtain software for internal use, payroll and payroll-related costs for employees directly associated with software development and interest cost incurred while developing software for internal use are capitalised and amortised on a straight-line basis through earnings over the estimated useful life.

Deferred income taxes

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognised based on the difference between financial statement carrying amounts and the corresponding income tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted income tax rates and laws. A valuation allowance is recorded against deferred tax assets when it is deemed more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax asset may not be realised.

Unpaid claims and claim adjustment expenses

Liabilities for unpaid claims and claim adjustment expenses for property and casualty reinsurance contracts are accrued when insured events occur and are based on the estimated ultimate cost of settling the claims, using reports and individual case estimates received from ceding companies. A provision is also included for claims incurred but not reported, which is developed on the basis of past experience adjusted for current trends and other factors that modify past experience. The establishment of the appropriate level of reserves is an inherently uncertain process involving estimates and judgments made by management, and therefore there can be no assurance that ultimate claims and claim adjustment expenses will not exceed the loss reserves currently established. These estimates are regularly reviewed, and adjustments for differences between estimates and actual payments for claims and for changes in estimates are reflected in income in the period in which the estimates are changed or payments are made.

The Group does not discount liabilities arising from prospective property and casualty insurance and reinsurance contracts, including liabilities discounted for US statutory reporting purposes. Liabilities arising from property and casualty insurance and reinsurance contracts acquired in a business combination are initially recognised at fair value in accordance with the purchase method of accounting.

Experience features directly linked to a reinsurance asset or liability are classified in a manner that is consistent with the presentation of that asset or liability.

Liabilities for life and health policy benefits

Liabilities for life and health policy benefits from reinsurance business are generally calculated using the net level premium method, based on assumptions as to investment yields, mortality, withdrawals, lapses and policyholder dividends. Assumptions are set at the time the contract is issued or, in the case of contracts acquired by purchase, at the purchase date. The assumptions are based on projections from past experience, making allowance for possible adverse deviation. Interest assumptions for life and health (re)insurance benefits liabilities range from 0.4% to 12%. Assumed mortality rates are generally based on experience multiples applied to the actuarial select and ultimate tables based on industry experience. Liabilities for policy benefits are increased with a charge to earnings if it is determined that future cash flows, including investment income, are insufficient to cover future benefits and expenses. Where assets backing liabilities for policy benefits are held as AFS, these liabilities for policyholder benefits are increased by a shadow adjustment, with a charge to other comprehensive income, where future cash flows at market rates are insufficient to cover future benefits and expenses.

The liability for accident and health policy benefits consists of active life reserves and the estimated present value of the remaining ultimate net costs of incurred claims. The active life reserves include unearned premiums and additional reserves. The additional reserves are computed on the net level premium method using assumptions for future investment yield, mortality and morbidity experience. The assumptions are based on projections of past experience and include provisions for possible adverse deviation.

Policyholder account balances

Policyholder account balances relate to universal life-type contracts and investment contracts. Interest crediting rates for policyholder account balances range from 2% to 9%.

Universal life-type contracts are long-duration insurance contracts, providing either death or annuity benefits, with terms that are not fixed and guaranteed.

Investment contracts are long-duration contracts that do not incorporate significant insurance risk, ie there is no mortality and morbidity risk, or the mortality and morbidity risk associated with the insurance benefit features offered in the contract is of insignificant amount or remote probability. Amounts received as payment for investment contracts are reported as policyholder account balances. Related assets are included in general account assets except for investments for unit-linked and with-profit business, which are presented in a separate line item on the face of the balance sheet.

Amounts assessed against policyholders for mortality, administration and surrender are shown as fee income. Amounts credited to policyholders are shown as interest credited to policyholders. Investment income and realised investment gains and losses allocable to policyholders are included in net investment income and net realised investment gains/losses except for unit-linked and with-profit business which is presented in a separate line item on the face of the income statement.

Funds held assets and liabilities

Funds held assets and liabilities include amounts retained by the ceding company or the Group for business written on a funds withheld basis, and amounts arising from the application of the deposit method of accounting to insurance and reinsurance contracts that do not indemnify the ceding company or the Group against loss or liability relating to insurance risk.

Under the deposit method of accounting, the deposit asset or liability is initially measured based on the consideration paid or received. For contracts that transfer neither significant timing nor underwriting risk, and contracts that transfer only significant timing risk, changes in estimates of the timing or amounts of cash flows are accounted for by recalculating the effective yield. The deposit is then adjusted to the amount that would have existed had the new effective yield been applied since the inception of the contract. The revenue and expense recorded for such contracts is included in net investment income. For contracts that transfer only significant underwriting risk, once a loss is incurred, the deposit is adjusted by the present value of the incurred loss. At each subsequent balance sheet date, the portion of the deposit attributable to the incurred loss is recalculated by discounting the estimated future cash flows. The resulting changes in the carrying amount of the deposit are recognised in claims and claim adjustment expenses.

Shadow adjustments

Shadow adjustments are recognised in other comprehensive income reflecting the offset of adjustments to deferred acquisition costs and PVFP, typically related to universal life-type contracts, and policyholder liabilities. The purpose is to reflect the fact that certain amounts recorded as unrealised investment gains and losses within shareholders equity will ultimately accrue to policyholders and not shareholders.

Shadow loss recognition testing becomes relevant in low interest rate environments. The test considers whether the hypothetical sale of AFS  securities and the reinvestment of proceeds at lower yields would lead to negative operational earnings in future periods and thereby causing a loss recognition event. For shadow loss recognition testing, the Group uses current market yields to determine best estimate GAAP reserves rather than using locked in or current book yields. If the unlocked best estimate GAAP reserves based on current market rates are in excess of reserves based on locked in or current book yields, then a shadow loss recognition reserve is recognised. Shadow loss recognition is recognised in other comprehensive income and does not impact net income. In addition, shadow losses recognised can reverse up to the amount of losses recognised due to a loss recognition event.


Property and casualty reinsurance premiums are recorded when written and include an estimate for written premiums receivable at period end. Premiums earned are generally recognised in income over the contract period in proportion to the amount of reinsurance provided. Unearned premiums consist of the unexpired portion of reinsurance provided. Life reinsurance premiums are earned when due. Related policy benefits are recorded in relation to the associated premium or gross profits so that profits are recognised over the expected lives of the contracts.

Life and health reinsurance premiums for group coverages are generally earned over the term of the coverage. For group contracts that allow experience adjustments to premiums, such premiums are recognised as the related experience emerges.

Reinsurance ceded

The Group uses retrocession arrangements to increase its aggregate underwriting capacity, to diversify its risk and to reduce the risk of catastrophic loss on reinsurance assumed. The ceding of risks to retrocessionaires does not relieve the Group of its obligations to its ceding companies. The Group regularly evaluates the financial condition of its retrocessionaires and monitors the concentration of credit risk to minimise its exposure to financial loss from retrocessionaires’ insolvency. Premiums and losses ceded under retrocession contracts are reported as reductions of premiums earned and claims and claim adjustment expenses. Amounts recoverable for ceded short- and long-duration contracts, including universal life-type and investment contracts, are reported as assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet.

The Group provides reserves for uncollectible amounts on reinsurance balances ceded, based on management’s assessment of the collectability of the outstanding balances.


Premium and claims receivables which have been invoiced are accounted for at face value. Together with assets arising from the application of the deposit method of accounting that meet the definition of financing receivables they are regularly assessed for impairment. Evidence of impairment is the age of the receivable and/or any financial difficulties of the counterparty. Allowances are set up on the net balance, meaning all balances related to the same counterparty are considered. The amount of the allowance is set up in relation to the time a receivable has been due and financial difficulties of the debtor, and can be as high as the outstanding net balance.

Pensions and other post-retirement benefits

The Group accounts for its pension and other post-retirement benefit costs using the accrual method of accounting. Amounts charged to expense are based on periodic actuarial determinations.

Share-based payment transactions

The Group has a long-term incentive plan, a fixed option plan, a restricted share plan, and an employee participation plan. These plans are described in more detail in Note 14. The Group accounts for share-based payment transactions with employees using the fair value method. Under the fair value method, the fair value of the awards is recognised in earnings over the vesting period.

For share-based compensation plans which are settled in cash, compensation costs are recognised as liabilities, whereas for equity-settled plans, compensation costs are recognised as an accrual to additional paid-in capital within shareholders’ equity.

Treasury shares

Treasury shares are reported at cost in shareholders’ equity. Treasury shares also include stand-alone derivative instruments indexed to the Group’s shares that meet the requirements for classification in shareholders’ equity.

Earnings per common share

Basic earnings per common share are determined by dividing net income available to shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares entitled to dividends during the year. Diluted earnings per common share reflect the effect on earnings and average common shares outstanding associated with dilutive securities.

Related parties

The Group defines the following as related parties to the Group: Subsidiaries of Swiss Re Ltd, entities in which the group has significant influence, pension plans, members of governing bodies of Swiss Re Ltd and their close family members, and entities which are directly and indirectly controlled by members of governing bodies of Swiss Re Ltd and their close family members.

As part of the consolidation process, transactions between Swiss Re Ltd and subsidiaries are eliminated in consolidation and are not disclosed in the notes. Transactions with affiliates are entered into the ordinary course of business.

Contributions made to defined benefit pension plans and post-retirement benefit plans are disclosed in Note 13 Benefit Plans. Related party transactions with the Groups governing bodies are disclosed in Note 12 of the financial statements of Swiss Re Ltd.

Subsequent events

Subsequent events for the current reporting period have been evaluated up to 14 March 2013. This is the date on which the financial statements are available to be issued.

Recent accounting guidance

In October 2010, the FASB issued “Accounting for Costs Associated with Acquiring or Renewing Insurance Contracts” (ASU 2010-26), an update to Topic 944 – Financial Services – Insurance. This update limits the definition of deferrable acquisition costs to costs directly related to the successful acquisition or renewal of insurance contracts. The Group adopted this guidance as of 1 January 2012. Please refer to Note 5 and to the statement of shareholders’ equity for the impact on deferred acquisition costs and retained earnings, respectively.

In April 2011, the FASB issued “Reconsideration of Effective Control for Repurchase Agreements” (ASU 2011-03), an update to Topic 860 – Transfers and Servicing. The amendments in this update remove from the assessment of effective control for repurchase agreements and similar agreements the criterion requiring the transferor to have the ability to repurchase or redeem the financial assets on substantially the agreed terms, even in the event of default by the transferee. The Group adopted this guidance as of 1 January 2012. The adoption did not have an impact on the Group’s financial statements.

In May 2011, the FASB issued “Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in US GAAP and IFRS” (ASU 2011-04), an update to Topic 820 – Fair Value Measurement. The guidance requires additional fair value disclosures. In addition, the ASU increases the emphasis on the unit of account and introduces more restrictive guidance on the incorporation of premiums and discounts relating to the size of a position of financial instruments held in measuring fair value. The Group adopted this update as of 1 January 2012. Changes in fair value measurements resulting from the application of the new guidance were immaterial. The additional disclosure requirements are reflected in Note 3.

In June 2011, the FASB issued “Presentation of Comprehensive Income” (ASU 2011-05), an update to Topic 220 – Comprehensive Income. In December 2011, an amendment of ASU 2011-05 was issued, “Deferral of the Effective Date for Amendments to the Presentation of Reclassifications of Items Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income in Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-05” (ASU 2011-12). Amended ASU 2011-05 requires entities to present net income and other comprehensive income in either a single continuous statement or in two separate, but consecutive, statements of net income and other comprehensive income. The option to present items of other comprehensive income in the statement of changes in equity is eliminated. The Group has adopted this guidance as of 1 January 2012 by adjusting its presentation of net income and other comprehensive income accordingly.

In September 2011, the FASB issued “Testing Goodwill for Impairment“ (ASU 2011-08), an update to Topic 350 – Intangibles – Goodwill and Other. The update provides entities with the option of performing a “qualitative” assessment to determine whether further impairment testing is necessary. The Group adopted this guidance as of 1 January 2012. The adoption did not have an impact on the Group’s financial statements.